Last updated on September 11, 2020 by Dan Nanni
curl command, but want to set a few custom header fields in the outgoing HTTP request. How can I use a custom HTTP header with
curl is a powerful command-line tool that can transfer data to and from a server over network. It supports a number of transfer protocols, notably HTTP/HTTPS, and many others such as FTP/FTPS, RTSP, POP3/POP3S, SCP, IMAP/IMAPS, etc. When you send out an HTTP request for a URL with
curl, it uses a default HTTP header with only essential header fields (e.g., User-Agent, Host, and Accept).
In some cases, however, you may want to override the default header or even add a custom header field in an HTTP request. For example, you may want to override
Host field to test a load balancer, or spoof
User-Agent string to get around browser-specific access restriction. In other cases, you may be accessing a website which requires a specific cookie, or testing a REST-ful API with various custom parameters in the header.
To handle all these cases,
curl provides an easy way to fully control the HTTP header of outgoing HTTP requests. The parameter you want to use is
-H or equivalently
-H option can be specified multiple times with
curl command to define more than one HTTP header fields.
For example, the following command sets three HTTP header fields, i.e., overriding
Host field, and add two fields (
$ curl -H 'Host: 18.104.22.168' -H 'Accept-Language: es' -H 'Cookie: ID=1234' http://cnn.com
For standard HTTP header fields such as
Host, there is actually another way to setting them. The
curl command offers designated options for setting these header fields:
For example, the following two commands are equivalent. Both of them change
User-Agent string in the HTTP header to
$ curl -H "User-Agent: my browser" http://cnn.com $ curl -A "my browser" http://cnn.com
There are also other command-line utilities that you can use to fetch a URL like
curl. For example,
wget can use a custom HTTP header with
--header option. HTTPie offers a more user-friendly interface to generate custom HTTP headers.
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