How to access SQLite database in Perl

Last updated on July 22, 2020 by Dan Nanni

SQLite is a zero-configuration, server-less, file-based transactional database system. Due to its lightweight, self-contained, and compact design, SQLite is an extremely popular choice when you want to integrate a database into your application. In this post, I am going to show you how to create and access an SQLite database in Perl script. The Perl code snippet I present is fully functional, so you can easily modify and integrate it into your project.

Preparation for SQLite Access

I am going to use SQLite DBI Perl driver to connect to SQLite3. Thus you need to install it (along with SQLite3) on your Linux system.

For Debian, Ubuntu or Linux Mint:

$ sudo apt-get install sqlite3 libdbd-sqlite3-perl

For CentOS, Fedora or RHEL:

$ sudo yum install sqlite perl-DBD-SQLite

After installation, you can check if the SQLite driver is indeed available by using the following script.

#!/usr/bin/perl

use DBI;
my @drv = DBI->available_drivers();
print join("n", @drv), "n";

If you run the script, you should see SQLite in the output.

DBM
ExampleP
File
Gofer
Proxy
SQLite
Sponge

Perl SQLite Access Example

Here is the full-blown Perl code example of SQLite access. This Perl script will demonstrate the following SQLite database management routines.

#!/usr/bin/perl

use DBI;
use strict;

# define database name and driver
my $driver   = "SQLite";
my $db_name = "xmodulo.db";
my $dbd = "DBI:$driver:dbname=$db_name";

# sqlite does not have a notion of username/password
my $username = "";
my $password = "";

# create and connect to a database.
# this will create a file named xmodulo.db
my $dbh = DBI->connect($dbd, $username, $password, { RaiseError => 1 })
                      or die $DBI::errstr;
print STDERR "Database opened successfullyn";

# create a table
my $stmt = qq(CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS NETWORK
             (ID INTEGER PRIMARY KEY     AUTOINCREMENT,
              HOSTNAME       TEXT    NOT NULL,
              IPADDRESS      INT     NOT NULL,
              OS             CHAR(50),
              CPULOAD        REAL););
my $ret = $dbh->do($stmt);
if($ret < 0) {
   print STDERR $DBI::errstr;
} else {
   print STDERR "Table created successfullyn";
}

# insert three rows into the table
$stmt = qq(INSERT INTO NETWORK (HOSTNAME,IPADDRESS,OS,CPULOAD)
           VALUES ('xmodulo', 16843009, 'Ubuntu 14.10', 0.0));
$ret = $dbh->do($stmt) or die $DBI::errstr;

$stmt = qq(INSERT INTO NETWORK (HOSTNAME,IPADDRESS,OS,CPULOAD)
           VALUES ('bert', 16843010, 'CentOS 7', 0.0));
$ret = $dbh->do($stmt) or die $DBI::errstr;

$stmt = qq(INSERT INTO NETWORK (HOSTNAME,IPADDRESS,OS,CPULOAD)
           VALUES ('puppy', 16843011, 'Ubuntu 14.10', 0.0));
$ret = $dbh->do($stmt) or die $DBI::errstr;

# search and iterate row(s) in the table
$stmt = qq(SELECT id, hostname, os, cpuload from NETWORK;);
my $obj = $dbh->prepare($stmt);
$ret = $obj->execute() or die $DBI::errstr;

if($ret < 0) {
   print STDERR $DBI::errstr;
}
while(my @row = $obj->fetchrow_array()) {
      print "ID: ". $row[0] . "n";
      print "HOSTNAME: ". $row[1] ."n";
      print "OS: ". $row[2] ."n";
      print "CPULOAD: ". $row[3] ."nn";
}

# update specific row(s) in the table
$stmt = qq(UPDATE NETWORK set CPULOAD = 50 where OS='Ubuntu 14.10';);
$ret = $dbh->do($stmt) or die $DBI::errstr;

if( $ret < 0 ) {
   print STDERR $DBI::errstr;
} else {
   print STDERR "A total of $ret rows updatedn";
}

# delete specific row(s) from the table
$stmt = qq(DELETE from NETWORK where ID=2;);
$ret = $dbh->do($stmt) or die $DBI::errstr;

if($ret < 0) {
   print STDERR $DBI::errstr;
} else {
   print STDERR "A total of $ret rows deletedn";
}

# quit the database
$dbh->disconnect();
print STDERR "Exit the databasen";

A successful run of the above Perl script will create a SQLite database file named xmodulo.db, and show the following output.

Database opened successfully
Table created successfully
ID: 1
HOSTNAME: xmodulo
OS: Ubuntu 14.10
CPULOAD: 0

ID: 2
HOSTNAME: bert
OS: CentOS 7
CPULOAD: 0

ID: 3
HOSTNAME: puppy
OS: Ubuntu 14.10
CPULOAD: 0

A total of 2 rows updated
A total of 1 rows deleted
Exit the database

Troubleshooting

If you attempt to access SQLite in Perl without installing SQLite DBI driver, you will encounter the following error. You must install DBI driver as describe at the beginning to fix this error.

Can't locate DBI.pm in @INC (@INC contains: /usr/local/lib64/perl5 /usr/local/share/perl5 /usr/lib64/perl5/vendor_perl /usr/share/perl5/vendor_perl /usr/lib64/perl5 /usr/share/perl5 .) at ./script.pl line 3.
BEGIN failed--compilation aborted at ./script.pl line 3.

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